TATA BAHASA INGGRIS (ENGLISH GRAMMAR)

ADJECTIVE WITH –ED AND – ING

  We use Past Participle ( Adjective end in – ed ) to describe the emotion of a person.

1.   A : How do you feel ?

B : I’m confused

2.   I’m not interested in writing.

  • We use Present Participle ( Adjective ending in –ing ) to describe the thing  or person that causes the emotion .

1.   A : What was the lesson like ?

B : It’s exciting.

2.   Some stories are interesting.

Here are some common –ed and –ing adjectives :

Bored                          Boring                     Annoyed         Annoying

Disapointed             Disapointing           Confused        Confusing

Embarrased             Embarrassing         Excited            Exciting

Interested                Interesting               Frightened      Frightening

Surprised                 Surprising                Tired                 Tiring

 Practice

Please put the appropriate adjectives.

1.   I have nothing to do. I feel ___________. It’s really a  ___________ day ( bored / boring )

2.   I am studying. That loud music is ___________. I’m __________. ( annoyed / annoying ).

3.   I’m not really __________ in playing the gamelan. I think playing the gamelan is not an _________ activity at all. (interested / interesting )

4.   She gets _________ . She can’t do the homework. Her mathematics homework is __________ . (confused / confusing )

5.   We were all __________ by the exhibition. It was really _________. ( excited / exciting )

6.   The children were very _____________ last night after watching the ____________ film . ( frightened / frightening )

7.   When I arrived at the party, I realized that I hadn’t worn my shoes. It was an __________ experience. I got __________. ( embarrassed / embarrassing )

8.   Sandra felt _________. The film was not as good as she had expected. It was __________. ( disappointed / disappointing )

9.   He is a __________ person. He always talks about the same things again and again. He never gets __________ talking about the same things. (bored / boring )

10. Alwi works in a restaurant as a waiter. He has to serve the customers from 8 a.m. to 4 a.m. Sometimes he thinks working as a waiter is __________. He always feel __________ after work. ( tired / tiring )

USED TO

We use used to + base form for pas habits.

  • Andi drank milk when he was a child.

Andi used to drink milk.

  • Andi doesn’t drink milk any longer.
  • Grandma didn’t watch TV when she was young.

Grandma didn’t use to watch TV.

  • She watches TV now.

+ She/He/It/I/They/We used to eat porridge.

  She/He/It/I/They/We din’t use to porridge.

?  Did She/He/It/I/They/We use to eat porridge ?

+ She/He/It/I/They/We used to be naughty.

  She/He/It/I/They/We din’t use to be naughty.

?  Did She/He/It/I/They/We use to be naughty ?


Make sentences with used to / didn’t use to about these situations.

1.   Riko was a naughty boy 5 years ago.

Riko used to be a naughty boy.

2.   My father worked in an office from 1980 to 1999. Now he is a farmer

3.   Butet has a new computer. It is her first computer.

4.   Now Miss Anin teaches Mathematics. From 2001 to 2004 she taught English.

5.   Nisa goes to SMP 5 now. She went to SMP 66 when she was in the 1st and 2nd year.

6.   Rudy listened to Joshua. He listens to Avril Lavigne now.

7.   Last year Deden had 6 birds. Now, he has only one bird.

8.   Lita was fat when she was a child. Now she is slim.

9.   Mr. Frans drives a car now. Las year he still rode a motorcycle.

10. Mrs. Abdullah lived in Banda Aceh. She lives in Jakarta now.

11. Tesa’s granny is forgetful now. She could remember everything well when she was young.

 

EXPRESSING PURPOSE

 Look and Learn.

Here are some sentence in Ia :

  • I went to the police station to report the incident.
  • I’m going to the Immigration Office to get a new passort.

We use to infinitive to express pur purpose. It answers the question ‘Why ?’

Remember, we do not express our purpose this way :

  • I went to the police station for reporting the incident.
  • I’m goint to the Immigration Office for getting a new passport.

a.   What are their purpose ?

Answer the questions below. Pay attention to their tenses.

1.   Why do people study English ?

People study English to get a good job.

      People study English to have friends from abroad.

      People study English to pass the exam.

2.   Why do people go to school ?

3.   Why did Vincent go to hospital ?

4.   Why is Budi going to the florist ?

5.   Why are the children going to the park ?

6.   Why did Ms. Saskia go to the bank ?

7.   Why do you get up early ?

8.   Why are you going to the library ?

9.   Why did they go to the police office ?

10. Why does Miss. Sumita go to work ?

 

b.   A surprise party for Butet

Complete the sentences below. Use the words in the box to help you.

       Butet’s mother has been very busy. She is planning a surprise for Butet’s birthday.

       First, Butet’s mother went to the bank to (1)__________ some money. After that she went to Chantique to (2)__________ a new dress for Butet. Then she went to Yummy Resto to (3)__________ a place there. Next she went to Enak bakery to (4)__________ a birthday cake. Then she went to Iwan’s house to (5)__________ about the surprise party.

Tomorrow evening Butet’s mother and father are going to Miss Kholifah’s house to (6)__________ her to the party. Afetr that they are going to bookstore to (7)__________ a present for Butet. Finally the day after tomorrow they are going to Yummy Resto together to (8)__________ Butet’s birthday.

ADVERBS OF MANNER

 Here are some sentences :

  • If you want to be healthy, you must do the sports regularly.
  • You move suddenly and quickly.
  • You move all the time and rhythmically.
  • They make your blood circulate easily.

 Regularly, suddenly, rhythmically, and easily are called adverbs of manner. They tell you the way somebody does something or the way something happens.

Here are moe examples :

  • She walks slowly.
  • He cries loudly.
  • He eats sloppily.
  • She sleeps soundly.

How to form adverb of manner

Most adverbs of manner have –ly at the end, for examples :

  • Slow                                    slowly
  • sad                                       sadly
  • quick                                   quickly
  • quiet                                    quietly
  • loud                                     loudly
  • careful                                 carefully
  • polite                                   politely
  • rude                                     rudely
  • soft                                      softly

Noice where the ‘Y’ changes to ‘i’.

  • easy                                     easily
  • crazy                                    crazily
  • happy                                  happily
  • sleepy                                  sleepily
  • lazy                                      lazily
  • sloppy                                  sloppily

Some adverbs of manner are different.

  • Good                                   well
  • Hard                                    hard
  • Fast                                     fast
  • Late                                     late

Complete the sentences with the correct adverds of manner.

1.   Shinta is a good badminton player. She palys badminton _____________

2.   Wahyu is a fast runner. He runs _____________

3.   The football coach has a very loud voice. He always speaks _______________

4.   Nadia is an accurate gymnast.  She lands on the balance beam _______________

5.   The spectators at the stadium were very noisy. They supported their team _____________

6.   Fishing needs patient because people must wait _______________

7.   Tony is a diligent athlete. He practices ______________

8.   The cheerleaders are very energetic. They cheer and dance _______________

USING CAUSATIVE VERBS

HAVE / GET / MAKE / LET

 Look and Learn.

Here are some sentences :

  • You can have your body tattooed.
  • A girl is having her hair braided.
  • They are going to have their faces painted

Those sentences above are using the construction of Causative Have / Get. We use causative have / get when we do not do the things ourselves but other people do it for us. The past participles (tattooed, braided, and painted) are used after have / get to give a passive meaning.

Here are some common mistakes :

  • I go to the hairdresser to cut my hair.
  • I went to the tailor to make a dress.

The correct sentences are :

  • I go to the hairdresser to have / get my hair cut.
  • I went to the tailor to have / get a dress made.

There are two kinds of causative structure (both are applicable for all English Tenses).

I.    The Active Causative Structure.

SUBJECT CAUSATIVE VERB AGENT ACTION VERB(+ OBJECT) FUNCTION
Ratna Has Her driver Pick Lina up To give someone the responsibility to something (to ask someone to do something).
Ratna Gets Lina To go to Bali to convince to do something (to persuade someone to do something).
Mrs. Arman Will get Lina To unpack her luggage
Ratna’s parents Made Ratna Move to Bali To force someone to do something
Mr. Arman Let Lina Go to Ratna’s house To allow someone to something

II.  The Passive Causative Structure.

SUBJECT CAUSATIVE VERB OBJECT ACTION VERB
We Had Our lunch Prepared
You Got The rice Cooked
Ratna Has Her car drived

Note : – The causative verbs can be used in any tenses.

–  The forms are changed according to the tenses.

Passive Causative

Has/Have/Get + Past Participle / verbs III

Example :

v  Someone washes my car                                       Simple Present Tense

–      I have my car washed

–      I get my car washes

v  Somebody stole her car                                         Simple Past Tense

–      She had her car stolen

–      She got her car stolen

v  He will cut his hair                                                Future Tense

–      He will have his hair cut

–      He will get his hair cut

v  They should write that poem                                Past Future

–      They should have that poem written

–      They should get that poem written

Exercises : Change the following sentences into causative forms by using “Have” or “Get” !

1.   People built her house a year ago.

2.   Someone repairs my broken windows.

3.   I have ironed my skirt.

4.   You must renew your contract.

5.   Rini should mail those letters.

6.   Somebody cleaned his house yesterday.

7.   We explain everything to them.

8.   Ida has shined her shoes.

THE USE OF “IT”

Kata it mempunyai 2 kegunaan yaitu :

1.   Sebagai pronoun (kata ganti benda) untuk menggantikan bentuk kata benda tunggal.  Bentuk jamak “it” adalah “they”.

Contoh :

–          I just bought a car. It is in the garage now.

–          I have two cars. They are in the garage now.

–          A : Is this pen your’s ?

B : Yes, it is

No, it isn’t

–     A : Are those books yours ?

B : Yes, they are

No, they aren’t

2.   Sebagai preposition ( pendahulu kalimat) bila untuk menyatakan sesuatu yang berhubungan dengan :

1. Time (waktu)

2. Situation / Circumstance (keadaan/hal)

3. Distance (jarak)

Dalam hal ini “it” berkedudukan sebagai “meaningless subject”  atau pokok kalimat yang tidak mempunyai arti.

Contoh :

It is 9 o’clock now                                                          Time

It is so sad tobe alone                                                    Circumstance

It is cloudy today                                                            Situation

It is 5 km to go to the zoo from here                           Distance

Bentuk “It is” juga mempunyai variasi tenses dalam pemakaiannya.

Bandingkanlah :

It is so glad to meet you again            ( Present Tense )

It was Friday yesterday                      ( Past Tense )

It will be nice to go there                    ( Future Tense )

It has been so long since he died        ( Perfect Tense )

Exercises :

1.   It  …………………..   easy to do such  a work.

2.   It …………………..    rainy season next October.

3.   It ………………….     raining hard for two hours.

4.   It …………………..    a pity you didn’t meet her.

5.   It ………………….      time to go to bed.

6.   It ………………….      glad to meet you again next year.

7.   It  …………………      important to have a lot of friends

8.   It  ………………..      here when I saw her.

9.   It …………………       up to you !  You may come with us.

10. It ………………..        Cloudy since this morning.

ING – FORMS

Kata kerja + ing mempunyai 3 kegunaan yaitu :

I.    Sebagai predikat kalimat bentuk sedang atau continuos tense dan sebagai kata kerja yang sebenarnya.

Contoh : – Mr. Lukito is reading a newspaper.

–  I was having dinner when telephone rang.

–  We were studying when Alice came in.

II.  Sebagai obyek atau subyek suatu kalimat yang berfungsi sebagai noun atau kata benda. Kata benda yang terbentuk dari Verb + ing di sebut Gerund.

      Gerund adalah kata kerja yang di bendakan atau dijadikan kata benda.

      Contoh :

v  Subject : –  Water        make me fresh

Walking

–  Food         make her sleepy

Waiting

v  Object :   – I like    bakso

Dancing

– He dislike that   man

waiting

Gerund mempunyai 2 (dua) kegunaan yaitu :

a). Digunakan dibelakang kata kerja tertentu, misalnya : stop, avoid, keep, mind, enjoy, finish, deny, permit, risk, admid, appreciate, imagine.

Contoh :  –   I can not stop loving you

–   She always keeps smiling to everybody

–   Mr. Hadi doesn’t mind helping us

–   I enjoyed dancing with Ina last night

–   The doctor advised me to stop smoking cigarettes

–   The servant denies stealing my money

b).  Diletakkan di belakang Preposition / kata depan yang tertentu, misalnya : in, on, without, by, before, after, of, with, etc.

Contoh :  –   Iam interested in studying English

–   Angga is fond of reading a novel

–   She went out without asking my permission

–   The thief broke my house by breaking the window.

III. Verb + ing dapat pula digunakan sebagai adjective / kata sifat untuk menerang kata benda di belakangnya. Kata sifat yang demikian disebut present participle.

Contoh :

–   Waiting room                                      –   Folding bed

–   Sleeping pills                                       –   Sleeping bag

–   Driving license                                    –   Rolling stone

–   Sewing machine                                  –   Swimming pool

–   Dining room                                        –   Filling cabinet

–   Rocking chair                                      –   Flying saucer

–   Stepping stone                                    –   Sliding door

–   Walking stick                                      –   Rolling door, ect.

Berdasarkan kaitannya dengan kata kerja yang lain, kita dapat mengelompokkan kata kerja sebagai beriktut :

1).  Verbs + Gerund

Terdapat kata kerja tertentu yang selalu diikuti “Gerung”, misalnya setelah stop, mind, avoid, keep, enjoy, finish, deny, permit, risk, admit, appreciate, imagine, dislike, consider.

Example :    –   I can not stop loving you

–   She always keeps smiling to everybody

–   Mr. Hadi doesn’t mind helping us

–   I enjoyed dancing with Ina last night

2).  Verbs + Gerund

                    To infinitive

Kelompok kata kerja berikut ini mempunyai dua cara pemakaian yaitu bias diikuti “Gerund” atau “To infinitive”. Kata kerja tersebut adalah : begin, start, continue, like, love, cease, hate, prepare, intend, prefer, state, neglect, propose.

Example :    –   I hate waiting (to wait) too long

–   They love eating (to eat) in that restaurant

–   We start studying (to study) at 7.30 a.m.

3).  Verbs + To + Infinitive

Kelompok kata kerja ini hanya dapat diikuti oleh “To + Infinitive“. Kata kerja tersebut adalah : arrange, agree, hesitate, determine, manage, care, try, swear, consent, endeavour, refuse, decide, learn, undertake, ect.

Example :    –   Please, don’t hesitate to ask !

–   They manage to finish their work at last

–   Rina refuse to stay here longer

–   I decide to go to Bali on my coming vacation

–   We try to do our best

4).  Verbs + Bare Infinitive

Kelompok kata kerja ini diikuti hanya oleh kata kerja asal saja (tampa to, ing, s/es). Kata kerja tersebut adalah make, let, see, hear, observe, watch, notice, help, feel, smell, etc.

Example :    –   You made me cry (bukan cried/crying)

–   Please, let her go

–   She has helped me lift the table

–   I saw him cross the street.etc

5).  Go + Ing.

Common expressions with Go + Ing

Go beating                      go hiking                               go shopping

Go bowling                     go jogging                             go skating

Go camping                     go running                             go skiing

Go dancing                     go sailing                               go swimming

Go fishing

Exercise : Put the verb in brakets in coorect form !

1).    I hate (see) __________ you (work) _________ so hard.

2).    Will you advise her (stop) _________ (smoke) _________ so much ?

3).    Is he going (keep) ________ (tell) ________ me that he is right ?

4).    They enjoy (dance) __________ until late at night.

5).    Don’t ever let me (find) _________ you (day-dream) __________.

6).    I must (ask) _________ you (stop) __________ (interfere) __________ .

7)     You are supposed (obey) __________ my order without (ask) any more questions.

8).    Could you (manage) __________ (finish) __________ (pack) __________ your suitcase by 7 o’clock ?

9).    Would you (mind) __________ (speak) __________ louder ?

10).  May I ask you (begin) __________ (eat) __________ now without (wait) __________ for others (come) __________ .

11).  I need (study) __________ tonight.

12).  I enjoy (cook) __________ fancy meals.

13).  Ellen started (talk) __________ about her problem.

14).  Bud and Sally have decided (get) __________ married.

15).  We finished ( eat) __________ around seven.

16).  Are you planning (take) __________ a vacation this year ?

17).  I like (meet) __________ new people.

18).  The Wilson’s went (camp) __________ in National Park last summer.

19).  My roommate offered (help) __________ me with my Englis.

20).  It begin (snow) ___________ yesterday in the middle of afternoon.

 

QUESTION TAG

I.    Statement positif diberi “tag” negative.

Statement                    Tag

Contoh :  Mr. Ramlan is very handsome, isn’t he ?

Statement                     Tag

They were here last night, weren’t they ?

II.  Statemernt negative diberi “tag” positif.

Statement                       Tag

Contoh :  Mr. Ramlan isn’t very handsome, is he ?

Statement                      Tag

They weren’t here last night, were they ?

III. Statement yang memiliki unsure “Auxiliary Verb” atau kata kerja Bantu dalam bentuk  “tag”nya kata kerja bantu tersebut diulang lagi dalam bentuk yang berlawanan.

Contoh :  –   They will come here immediately, won’t they ?

–   They won’t come here immediately, will they ?

–   Budi has done the homework well, hasn’t he ?

–   Budi hasn’t done the homework well, has he ?

IV. Statement dengan unsure “Verb” atau kata kerja dalam pembentukan “tag” nya kita gunakan “to do” (do, does, did ) sesuai dengan tense dari statement itu sendiri.

Contoh :  –   Mr. Hasim goes to his office, doestn’t ?

–   Mr. Hasim doesn’t go to his office, does he ?

–   They visited a museum yesterday, didn’t they ?

–   They didn’t visit a museum yesterday, did they ?

–   You take my money, don’t you ?

–   You don’t take my money, do you ?

Note :

1. I am a student, aren’t ?

2. I am not a student, am I ?

3. Johan never palys truant, does he ?

4. There are your books, aren’t they ?

5. There are some books on the table, aren’t there ?

6. Let’s go there now, shall we ?

7. Everyone is happy, aren’t they ?

8. Don’t come late again, will you ?

Exercises : Supply the sentences with suitable Question Tag !

1.   The boy overthere is your brother, __________ ?

2.   We musn’t do that, __________ ?

3.   Your grandmother has a new car, __________ ?

4.   Those aren’t my pencils, __________ ?

5.   I was there last night, __________ ?

6.   The students never go to the library on Sundays, __________ ?

7.   He wrote the letter last month, __________ ?

8.   You have been to Bali, ___________ ?

9.   We will visit her soon, __________ ?

10. I am your close friend, __________ ?

11. One of the girls can’t dance, ________ ?

12. Our parents always take us for a picnic, __________ ?

13. This is what we really want, __________ ?

14. Jose is very friendly, __________ ?

15. Vita likes her new doll very much, _________ ?

PREPOSITION

Preposition (preposisi / kata depan) adalah suatu kata yang menghubungkan benda, menerangkan tempat, arah, waktu atau tujuan.

Macam-macam preposition antara lain :

In                       =  di                                           For                       =  untuk / karena / selama

At                      =  di / pada                                Of                        =  dari

To                      =  untuk / kepada / ke           From                    =  dari

Into                   =  kedalam                                 With                    =  dengan

Before               =  sebelum                                 After                   =  setelah / sesudah

Within               =  dengan                                  Without               =  tampa

Beside               =  disamping                              Inside                  =  didalam

Outside             =  diluar                                     Near                    =  dekat

Behind              =  di belakang                            In front of           =  di depan

On                     =  di atas / pada                         Under                  =  di bawah

Above               =  di atas                                    Bellow                 =  di bawah

Over                  =  di atas                                    Besides                = selain

Between            =  diantara                                 By                       = dengan / oleh / menjelang

Among              = diantara

Contoh :        1. John listened to the radio.

2. Anita sits behind the floor.

3. They will come on the next year.

Exercises : Fill the blanks with the correct preposition !

1.   There are books ………. The table.

2.   I put my ruler ………. my bag.

3.   The lamp is ………. my head.

4.   She comes ………. America.

5.   The plane flies ……… the houses.

6.   The necklace is made ……… gold.

7.   The boys sit ………. the tree.

8.   Rudi is hiding …….. the door.

9.   The climbers stopped 400 metres ………. the top of the mountain.

10. The temperature is three degrees ……… zero.

11. Dadang is standing ………. Arif and Totok.

12. We wash our hands ……….. we eat something.

13. Maryam is sitting ………. Rosihan, Nabila and Nunik.

14. Someone is knocking ………. the door.

15. We go to Surabaya ……….. Bus.

About yus2812 WebPress
Hi, My name is Muhamad Yusuf. My nick name is Yus. I live in Probolinggo. I work as teacher in the Minestry of Religion Kota Probolinggo

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