TATA BAHASA INGGRIS (ENGLISH GRAMMAR)
November 12, 2012 Leave a comment
We use Past Participle ( Adjective end in – ed ) to describe the emotion of a person.
1. A : How do you feel ?
B : I’m confused
2. I’m not interested in writing.
- We use Present Participle ( Adjective ending in –ing ) to describe the thing or person that causes the emotion .
1. A : What was the lesson like ?
B : It’s exciting.
2. Some stories are interesting.
Here are some common –ed and –ing adjectives :
Bored Boring Annoyed Annoying
Disapointed Disapointing Confused Confusing
Embarrased Embarrassing Excited Exciting
Interested Interesting Frightened Frightening
Surprised Surprising Tired Tiring
Please put the appropriate adjectives.
1. I have nothing to do. I feel ___________. It’s really a ___________ day ( bored / boring )
2. I am studying. That loud music is ___________. I’m __________. ( annoyed / annoying ).
3. I’m not really __________ in playing the gamelan. I think playing the gamelan is not an _________ activity at all. (interested / interesting )
4. She gets _________ . She can’t do the homework. Her mathematics homework is __________ . (confused / confusing )
5. We were all __________ by the exhibition. It was really _________. ( excited / exciting )
6. The children were very _____________ last night after watching the ____________ film . ( frightened / frightening )
7. When I arrived at the party, I realized that I hadn’t worn my shoes. It was an __________ experience. I got __________. ( embarrassed / embarrassing )
8. Sandra felt _________. The film was not as good as she had expected. It was __________. ( disappointed / disappointing )
9. He is a __________ person. He always talks about the same things again and again. He never gets __________ talking about the same things. (bored / boring )
10. Alwi works in a restaurant as a waiter. He has to serve the customers from 8 a.m. to 4 a.m. Sometimes he thinks working as a waiter is __________. He always feel __________ after work. ( tired / tiring )
We use used to + base form for pas habits.
- Andi drank milk when he was a child.
Andi used to drink milk.
- Andi doesn’t drink milk any longer.
- Grandma didn’t watch TV when she was young.
Grandma didn’t use to watch TV.
- She watches TV now.
+ She/He/It/I/They/We used to eat porridge.
– She/He/It/I/They/We din’t use to porridge.
? Did She/He/It/I/They/We use to eat porridge ?
+ She/He/It/I/They/We used to be naughty.
– She/He/It/I/They/We din’t use to be naughty.
? Did She/He/It/I/They/We use to be naughty ?
Make sentences with used to / didn’t use to about these situations.
1. Riko was a naughty boy 5 years ago.
Riko used to be a naughty boy.
2. My father worked in an office from 1980 to 1999. Now he is a farmer
3. Butet has a new computer. It is her first computer.
4. Now Miss Anin teaches Mathematics. From 2001 to 2004 she taught English.
5. Nisa goes to SMP 5 now. She went to SMP 66 when she was in the 1st and 2nd year.
6. Rudy listened to Joshua. He listens to Avril Lavigne now.
7. Last year Deden had 6 birds. Now, he has only one bird.
8. Lita was fat when she was a child. Now she is slim.
9. Mr. Frans drives a car now. Las year he still rode a motorcycle.
11. Tesa’s granny is forgetful now. She could remember everything well when she was young.
Here are some sentence in Ia :
- I went to the police station to report the incident.
- I’m going to the Immigration Office to get a new passort.
We use to infinitive to express pur purpose. It answers the question ‘Why ?’
Remember, we do not express our purpose this way :
- I went to the police station for reporting the incident.
- I’m goint to the Immigration Office for getting a new passport.
a. What are their purpose ?
Answer the questions below. Pay attention to their tenses.
1. Why do people study English ?
People study English to get a good job.
People study English to have friends from abroad.
People study English to pass the exam.
2. Why do people go to school ?
3. Why did Vincent go to hospital ?
4. Why is Budi going to the florist ?
5. Why are the children going to the park ?
6. Why did Ms. Saskia go to the bank ?
7. Why do you get up early ?
8. Why are you going to the library ?
9. Why did they go to the police office ?
10. Why does Miss. Sumita go to work ?
b. A surprise party for Butet
Complete the sentences below. Use the words in the box to help you.
Butet’s mother has been very busy. She is planning a surprise for Butet’s birthday.
First, Butet’s mother went to the bank to (1)__________ some money. After that she went to Chantique to (2)__________ a new dress for Butet. Then she went to Yummy Resto to (3)__________ a place there. Next she went to Enak bakery to (4)__________ a birthday cake. Then she went to Iwan’s house to (5)__________ about the surprise party.
Tomorrow evening Butet’s mother and father are going to Miss Kholifah’s house to (6)__________ her to the party. Afetr that they are going to bookstore to (7)__________ a present for Butet. Finally the day after tomorrow they are going to Yummy Resto together to (8)__________ Butet’s birthday.
ADVERBS OF MANNER
Here are some sentences :
- If you want to be healthy, you must do the sports regularly.
- You move suddenly and quickly.
- You move all the time and rhythmically.
- They make your blood circulate easily.
Regularly, suddenly, rhythmically, and easily are called adverbs of manner. They tell you the way somebody does something or the way something happens.
Here are moe examples :
- She walks slowly.
- He cries loudly.
- He eats sloppily.
- She sleeps soundly.
How to form adverb of manner
Most adverbs of manner have –ly at the end, for examples :
- Slow slowly
- sad sadly
- quick quickly
- quiet quietly
- loud loudly
- careful carefully
- polite politely
- rude rudely
- soft softly
Noice where the ‘Y’ changes to ‘i’.
- easy easily
- crazy crazily
- happy happily
- sleepy sleepily
- lazy lazily
- sloppy sloppily
Some adverbs of manner are different.
- Good well
- Hard hard
- Fast fast
- Late late
Complete the sentences with the correct adverds of manner.
1. Shinta is a good badminton player. She palys badminton _____________
2. Wahyu is a fast runner. He runs _____________
3. The football coach has a very loud voice. He always speaks _______________
4. Nadia is an accurate gymnast. She lands on the balance beam _______________
5. The spectators at the stadium were very noisy. They supported their team _____________
6. Fishing needs patient because people must wait _______________
7. Tony is a diligent athlete. He practices ______________
8. The cheerleaders are very energetic. They cheer and dance _______________
USING CAUSATIVE VERBS
HAVE / GET / MAKE / LET
Look and Learn.
Here are some sentences :
- You can have your body tattooed.
- A girl is having her hair braided.
- They are going to have their faces painted
Those sentences above are using the construction of Causative Have / Get. We use causative have / get when we do not do the things ourselves but other people do it for us. The past participles (tattooed, braided, and painted) are used after have / get to give a passive meaning.
Here are some common mistakes :
- I go to the hairdresser to cut my hair.
- I went to the tailor to make a dress.
The correct sentences are :
- I go to the hairdresser to have / get my hair cut.
- I went to the tailor to have / get a dress made.
There are two kinds of causative structure (both are applicable for all English Tenses).
I. The Active Causative Structure.
|SUBJECT||CAUSATIVE VERB||AGENT||ACTION VERB(+ OBJECT)||FUNCTION|
|Ratna||Has||Her driver||Pick Lina up||To give someone the responsibility to something (to ask someone to do something).|
|Ratna||Gets||Lina||To go to Bali||to convince to do something (to persuade someone to do something).|
|Mrs. Arman||Will get||Lina||To unpack her luggage|
|Ratna’s parents||Made||Ratna||Move to Bali||To force someone to do something|
|Mr. Arman||Let||Lina||Go to Ratna’s house||To allow someone to something|
II. The Passive Causative Structure.
|SUBJECT||CAUSATIVE VERB||OBJECT||ACTION VERB|
Note : – The causative verbs can be used in any tenses.
– The forms are changed according to the tenses.
Has/Have/Get + Past Participle / verbs III
v Someone washes my car Simple Present Tense
– I have my car washed
– I get my car washes
v Somebody stole her car Simple Past Tense
– She had her car stolen
– She got her car stolen
v He will cut his hair Future Tense
– He will have his hair cut
– He will get his hair cut
v They should write that poem Past Future
– They should have that poem written
– They should get that poem written
Exercises : Change the following sentences into causative forms by using “Have” or “Get” !
1. People built her house a year ago.
2. Someone repairs my broken windows.
3. I have ironed my skirt.
4. You must renew your contract.
5. Rini should mail those letters.
6. Somebody cleaned his house yesterday.
7. We explain everything to them.
8. Ida has shined her shoes.
THE USE OF “IT”
Kata it mempunyai 2 kegunaan yaitu :
1. Sebagai pronoun (kata ganti benda) untuk menggantikan bentuk kata benda tunggal. Bentuk jamak “it” adalah “they”.
– I just bought a car. It is in the garage now.
– I have two cars. They are in the garage now.
– A : Is this pen your’s ?
B : Yes, it is
No, it isn’t
– A : Are those books yours ?
B : Yes, they are
No, they aren’t
2. Sebagai preposition ( pendahulu kalimat) bila untuk menyatakan sesuatu yang berhubungan dengan :
1. Time (waktu)
2. Situation / Circumstance (keadaan/hal)
3. Distance (jarak)
Dalam hal ini “it” berkedudukan sebagai “meaningless subject” atau pokok kalimat yang tidak mempunyai arti.
It is 9 o’clock now Time
It is so sad tobe alone Circumstance
It is cloudy today Situation
It is 5 km to go to the zoo from here Distance
Bentuk “It is” juga mempunyai variasi tenses dalam pemakaiannya.
It is so glad to meet you again ( Present Tense )
It was Friday yesterday ( Past Tense )
It will be nice to go there ( Future Tense )
It has been so long since he died ( Perfect Tense )
1. It ………………….. easy to do such a work.
2. It ………………….. rainy season next October.
3. It …………………. raining hard for two hours.
4. It ………………….. a pity you didn’t meet her.
5. It …………………. time to go to bed.
6. It …………………. glad to meet you again next year.
7. It ………………… important to have a lot of friends
8. It ……………….. here when I saw her.
9. It ………………… up to you ! You may come with us.
10. It ……………….. Cloudy since this morning.
ING – FORMS
Kata kerja + ing mempunyai 3 kegunaan yaitu :
I. Sebagai predikat kalimat bentuk sedang atau continuos tense dan sebagai kata kerja yang sebenarnya.
Contoh : – Mr. Lukito is reading a newspaper.
– I was having dinner when telephone rang.
– We were studying when Alice came in.
II. Sebagai obyek atau subyek suatu kalimat yang berfungsi sebagai noun atau kata benda. Kata benda yang terbentuk dari Verb + ing di sebut Gerund.
Gerund adalah kata kerja yang di bendakan atau dijadikan kata benda.
v Subject : – Water make me fresh
– Food make her sleepy
v Object : – I like bakso
– He dislike that man
Gerund mempunyai 2 (dua) kegunaan yaitu :
a). Digunakan dibelakang kata kerja tertentu, misalnya : stop, avoid, keep, mind, enjoy, finish, deny, permit, risk, admid, appreciate, imagine.
Contoh : – I can not stop loving you
– She always keeps smiling to everybody
– Mr. Hadi doesn’t mind helping us
– I enjoyed dancing with Ina last night
– The doctor advised me to stop smoking cigarettes
– The servant denies stealing my money
b). Diletakkan di belakang Preposition / kata depan yang tertentu, misalnya : in, on, without, by, before, after, of, with, etc.
Contoh : – Iam interested in studying English
– Angga is fond of reading a novel
– She went out without asking my permission
– The thief broke my house by breaking the window.
III. Verb + ing dapat pula digunakan sebagai adjective / kata sifat untuk menerang kata benda di belakangnya. Kata sifat yang demikian disebut present participle.
– Waiting room – Folding bed
– Sleeping pills – Sleeping bag
– Driving license – Rolling stone
– Sewing machine – Swimming pool
– Dining room – Filling cabinet
– Rocking chair – Flying saucer
– Stepping stone – Sliding door
– Walking stick – Rolling door, ect.
Berdasarkan kaitannya dengan kata kerja yang lain, kita dapat mengelompokkan kata kerja sebagai beriktut :
1). Verbs + Gerund
Terdapat kata kerja tertentu yang selalu diikuti “Gerung”, misalnya setelah stop, mind, avoid, keep, enjoy, finish, deny, permit, risk, admit, appreciate, imagine, dislike, consider.
Example : – I can not stop loving you
– She always keeps smiling to everybody
– Mr. Hadi doesn’t mind helping us
– I enjoyed dancing with Ina last night
2). Verbs + Gerund
Kelompok kata kerja berikut ini mempunyai dua cara pemakaian yaitu bias diikuti “Gerund” atau “To infinitive”. Kata kerja tersebut adalah : begin, start, continue, like, love, cease, hate, prepare, intend, prefer, state, neglect, propose.
Example : – I hate waiting (to wait) too long
– They love eating (to eat) in that restaurant
– We start studying (to study) at 7.30 a.m.
3). Verbs + To + Infinitive
Kelompok kata kerja ini hanya dapat diikuti oleh “To + Infinitive“. Kata kerja tersebut adalah : arrange, agree, hesitate, determine, manage, care, try, swear, consent, endeavour, refuse, decide, learn, undertake, ect.
Example : – Please, don’t hesitate to ask !
– They manage to finish their work at last
– Rina refuse to stay here longer
– I decide to go to Bali on my coming vacation
– We try to do our best
4). Verbs + Bare Infinitive
Kelompok kata kerja ini diikuti hanya oleh kata kerja asal saja (tampa to, ing, s/es). Kata kerja tersebut adalah make, let, see, hear, observe, watch, notice, help, feel, smell, etc.
Example : – You made me cry (bukan cried/crying)
– Please, let her go
– She has helped me lift the table
– I saw him cross the street.etc
5). Go + Ing.
Common expressions with Go + Ing
Go beating go hiking go shopping
Go bowling go jogging go skating
Go camping go running go skiing
Go dancing go sailing go swimming
Exercise : Put the verb in brakets in coorect form !
1). I hate (see) __________ you (work) _________ so hard.
2). Will you advise her (stop) _________ (smoke) _________ so much ?
3). Is he going (keep) ________ (tell) ________ me that he is right ?
4). They enjoy (dance) __________ until late at night.
5). Don’t ever let me (find) _________ you (day-dream) __________.
6). I must (ask) _________ you (stop) __________ (interfere) __________ .
7) You are supposed (obey) __________ my order without (ask) any more questions.
8). Could you (manage) __________ (finish) __________ (pack) __________ your suitcase by 7 o’clock ?
9). Would you (mind) __________ (speak) __________ louder ?
10). May I ask you (begin) __________ (eat) __________ now without (wait) __________ for others (come) __________ .
11). I need (study) __________ tonight.
12). I enjoy (cook) __________ fancy meals.
13). Ellen started (talk) __________ about her problem.
14). Bud and Sally have decided (get) __________ married.
15). We finished ( eat) __________ around seven.
16). Are you planning (take) __________ a vacation this year ?
17). I like (meet) __________ new people.
18). The Wilson’s went (camp) __________ in National Park last summer.
19). My roommate offered (help) __________ me with my Englis.
20). It begin (snow) ___________ yesterday in the middle of afternoon.
I. Statement positif diberi “tag” negative.
Contoh : Mr. Ramlan is very handsome, isn’t he ?
They were here last night, weren’t they ?
II. Statemernt negative diberi “tag” positif.
Contoh : Mr. Ramlan isn’t very handsome, is he ?
They weren’t here last night, were they ?
III. Statement yang memiliki unsure “Auxiliary Verb” atau kata kerja Bantu dalam bentuk “tag”nya kata kerja bantu tersebut diulang lagi dalam bentuk yang berlawanan.
Contoh : – They will come here immediately, won’t they ?
– They won’t come here immediately, will they ?
– Budi has done the homework well, hasn’t he ?
– Budi hasn’t done the homework well, has he ?
IV. Statement dengan unsure “Verb” atau kata kerja dalam pembentukan “tag” nya kita gunakan “to do” (do, does, did ) sesuai dengan tense dari statement itu sendiri.
Contoh : – Mr. Hasim goes to his office, doestn’t ?
– Mr. Hasim doesn’t go to his office, does he ?
– They visited a museum yesterday, didn’t they ?
– They didn’t visit a museum yesterday, did they ?
– You take my money, don’t you ?
– You don’t take my money, do you ?
1. I am a student, aren’t ?
2. I am not a student, am I ?
3. Johan never palys truant, does he ?
4. There are your books, aren’t they ?
5. There are some books on the table, aren’t there ?
6. Let’s go there now, shall we ?
7. Everyone is happy, aren’t they ?
8. Don’t come late again, will you ?
Exercises : Supply the sentences with suitable Question Tag !
1. The boy overthere is your brother, __________ ?
2. We musn’t do that, __________ ?
3. Your grandmother has a new car, __________ ?
4. Those aren’t my pencils, __________ ?
5. I was there last night, __________ ?
6. The students never go to the library on Sundays, __________ ?
7. He wrote the letter last month, __________ ?
8. You have been to Bali, ___________ ?
9. We will visit her soon, __________ ?
10. I am your close friend, __________ ?
11. One of the girls can’t dance, ________ ?
12. Our parents always take us for a picnic, __________ ?
13. This is what we really want, __________ ?
14. Jose is very friendly, __________ ?
15. Vita likes her new doll very much, _________ ?
Preposition (preposisi / kata depan) adalah suatu kata yang menghubungkan benda, menerangkan tempat, arah, waktu atau tujuan.
Macam-macam preposition antara lain :
In = di For = untuk / karena / selama
At = di / pada Of = dari
To = untuk / kepada / ke From = dari
Into = kedalam With = dengan
Before = sebelum After = setelah / sesudah
Within = dengan Without = tampa
Beside = disamping Inside = didalam
Outside = diluar Near = dekat
Behind = di belakang In front of = di depan
On = di atas / pada Under = di bawah
Above = di atas Bellow = di bawah
Over = di atas Besides = selain
Between = diantara By = dengan / oleh / menjelang
Among = diantara
Contoh : 1. John listened to the radio.
2. Anita sits behind the floor.
3. They will come on the next year.
Exercises : Fill the blanks with the correct preposition !
1. There are books ………. The table.
2. I put my ruler ………. my bag.
3. The lamp is ………. my head.
4. She comes ………. America.
5. The plane flies ……… the houses.
6. The necklace is made ……… gold.
7. The boys sit ………. the tree.
8. Rudi is hiding …….. the door.
9. The climbers stopped 400 metres ………. the top of the mountain.
10. The temperature is three degrees ……… zero.
11. Dadang is standing ………. Arif and Totok.
12. We wash our hands ……….. we eat something.
13. Maryam is sitting ………. Rosihan, Nabila and Nunik.
14. Someone is knocking ………. the door.
15. We go to Surabaya ……….. Bus.